Swords & Dagger
Terminology

Bastard Sword

Bastard Sword Also known as The hand and a half sword. Developed in the mid 1400’s as a form of long sword with grips for one or two hands. They had longer handles which allowed use by one or both hands. Claymore Swords Identified with the Scot’s symbol of the warrior the term claymore is Gaelic for great sword. It was used by the Scottish highlanders. The Claymore is a big sword and held by both hands.

Mortuary sword

Two Handed Sword A specialized type of great sword that became popular in the 16th century. The size and weight of the weapon made it unsuitable for close formation fighting. The grip of the sword was very long in proportion to the blade. The 2 handed swords have compound hilts with side rings and enlarged cross guards. They are specialized forms known in German as Dopplehander. Back Sword The back sword was so named because it had only one cutting edge. The non cutting edge being much thicker than the cutting edge thus creating a wedge type shape which was said to increase the weapons capacity. The back sword is also known as “Mortuary sword”.

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Rebated

Rebated A sword that has its point and edge blunted for training or tournament. Espada Spanish for sword. Spear With the club, perhaps the first human tool designed specifically as a weapon, the spear is simply long shifted weapon designed principally for thrusting. It primarily consisted of a shaft usually of wood with a sharpened edge.

Dagger

Dagger A knife usually in the form of a sword. Daggers come in a variety of forms with both single and double edged varieties. A dagger is used mainly for stabbing or thrusting in close combat as a secondary defense weapon. In most cases a tang extends into the handle along the centerline of the blade.

Dirk

Dirk : Is a Scot’s Word for a Long Dagger The word dirk could have derived from the Gaelic word Sgian Dearg. In medieval Scotland it was a back up of the broadsword. Usually a long single edged dagger developed from the medieval ballock. Rapier Sword A long, double edged slender bladed sword designed to emphasize the thrust. Rapiers first appeared in the mid 16th century.

Armour
Terminology

Chausses Leggings

Chausses Leggings. In the case of armour mail leggings tied to the belt by leather thongs. They could extend to the knee or cover the entire leg. They were the standard type of metal leg armour during most of the European middle ages. Camail A curtain of mail, hanging from the bottom of the helmet as a defense for the chin, neck, throat and shoulders. Coif A hood of fabric or mail worn under the helmet. Close Helmet A form of close fitting full helmet of the 16th and 17th centuries. The close helmet derived from the armet. Cuirass Full plate body armour, comprised of a breastplate, backplate and sometimes tassets. Earmes Leather straps used to grip a shield or buckles.

Gauntlet

Gauntlet A armoured glove, often formed if a single plate for the back of the hand and smaller overlapping plates for the fingers enabling them to move easily. Great Helm The first helmet of the middle ages to cover the entire head usually made of 4 to 5 iron plates revetted together and worn over a mail coif. Greave Armour for shin and calf. In the middle ages the greave eventually developed to protect the back of the legs as well and these were called full greaves. Hauberk A long coat of mail, knee length or longer, initially with half sleeves.

Armet

Armet, a close fitted visored helmet that appears to have originated in Italy. The armet was lighter and more protective than the bascinet. The typical armet consisted of four pieces: the skull, the two cheek plates and the visor.

Barbuta

Barbuta A Italian helmet design of the mid 15th century the barbute or barbuta was a close fitting helmet that came in a variety of open and close face forms. It was modeled on ancient classical Greek helmets. The barbuta shows a strong resembelance to the much older Corinthian helms.

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Bascinet

Bascinet A basin shaped helmet that evolved out of the small steel skull cap worn beneath the great helm. The bascinet was initially open faced but gradually a variety of hinged visors were developed. The term is also written as bassinet or basinet. The bascinet both with and without visors was the most common helmet worn in Europe during th latter portions of the 14th and 15th centuries.

Bevor

Bevor Also called a beviere or beavor. It was a 15th century piece of armour that protected the lower part of the face when worn with a sallet. Boss Shield The round or cone shaped metal plate at the center of a shield protecting the hand. Also called an umbo.Breaths Holes in the visor or face plate of the helmet. Burognet A open faced helmet with a crest and cheek guards.

Kettle Hat

Kettle Hat A plain iron hat with a broad brim, nearly identical to the defense helmets of the 20th century. Morion A form of helmet with a strongly curved brim and a high  comb  on top. Pauldron Plate of armour for the shoulders, made of several articulated plates.They evolved from spaulders in the 15th century. Pauldrons end to be larger than spaulders, covering the armpit and sometimes part of the back and chest.

Salade

Salade / Sallet A helmet of the 15th and 16th centuries often with a small lunged visor and a long articulated tail to protect the back of the neck. Shield A defensive devise that came in a variety of shapes and sizes made of wood or metal and hung from the arm by a series of straps or gripped by a handle.

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